A standard configuration is a fixed set of specific hardware bringing together optical laser beam transport and diagnostics. While the hardware is built from platforms and diagnostics available in standard at MEC, they are build together to serve a fixed purpose of executing a specific task (e.g. for the standard configuration #1, the XRD mode allows exclusively to measure Xray diffraction patterns in addition to VISAR data, nothing less, nothing more). The aim of this concept is to simplify and group the hardware needs for multiple experiments in a row, allowing to deliver peak performance of the instrument more consistantly. For run 22, the accessible standard configurations and their respective modes are:
- For the Long Pulse Laser:
- Standard configuration #1, Full Mode
- Standard configuration #1, XRTS Mode
- Standard configuration #2
This configuration of MEC supports diffraction measurements on targets shocked to pressures up to several Mbar, with shocks propagating along the X-ray direction. Four or three ePix10k measure diffraction, with angular range optimized for liquid diffraction at high photon energies (>15 keV). A dual line VISAR diagnostic measures shock break-out to determine pressure. Forward X-ray Thomson scattering (FXTS) is available with the removal of one quad and a reduction in angular coverage; backward X-ray Thomson scattering (BXRTS) is always available at 125° scattering angle. In summary, the available modes for this standard configuration are:
They are both detailed below.
Standard Configuration #1: Full mode
The base configuration consists of the ns laser drive beams, VISAR, the backward XRTS (optionally) and four ePix10k quad detectors. Fig.1 shows the layout with all of the quads.
The lasers hit the sample at an angle of 20° from each side of the x-ray axis. The angle between the target normal and the LCLS x-ray axis is 0° (so that each drive beam is incident at 20°). VISAR is collected normal to the back of the target. 4 Quad detectors are arranged to spatially resolve wide angle scattering from 8 to 72º. BXRTS will be located around 125 degree.
The XRD detection is performed using 4 “quad” cameras from the SLAC ePix10k family. The sensors on each quad are ¼ of a full ePix10k-2M. The MEC variety use twice the standard thickness of Si, 1 mm, to achieve higher quantum efficiency at high photon energies, and are packaged to be robust against EMP from laser-target interaction. The pixel size is 100 µm x 100 µm. Added during run 18, these detectors have better noise and higher dynamic range than the previous CSPADs, for a similar detector area. For diffraction experiments, the detectors are oriented around the primary interaction point in a Debye-Scherrer transmission geometry, with their positions in the standard configuration illustrated in Figure 3. Here four Quads, labeled as Q0, Q1, Q2 and Q3, are used to record the diffraction signal.
The top two quads, Q0 and Q1 access the lowest angles from above the horizontal plane, while Q2 and Q3 are oriented for wider angles in the horizontal plane as shown in Figure 4.
For the reconstruction of the diffraction pattern, dioptas is available as an analysis package at LCLS. Dioptas may be run on our psana analysis machines, accessing experiment data via NFS.
Standard Configuration #1: FXRTS mode
Quads Q2 can be removed to allow a forward X-ray Thomson scattering diagnostic to be placed. The FXRTS spectrometer will be in the horizontal plane with a fixed scattering angle of 30 degree.
Figure 5 shows the experimental layout with FXRTS. The 3 ePix10k Quads as XRD detectors cover from 8 to 60º.
Optical Laser Parameters and Geometry
The full frequency-doubled energy of the long pulse laser is delivered to the target with angles of ± 20 deg. in the horizontal plane relative to the X-rays, with the target oriented normal to the X-rays. Both beamlines can be used simultaneously (7 minutes between shots), or staggered (one shot every 3.5 minutes). The 72 mm beams are focused using 250 mm focal length aspheric lenses (F/3.5), and the focal plane of each beam relative to the target can be adjusted from best focus to a ~100 µm spot. MEC uses phase plates generating circular focal spots of 150, 300 and 600 micron by CPP. Phase plates can be manually exchanged during a standard configuration run, requiring a chamber vent. Note that desired pulse shapes and phase plates must be submitted at least 2 months before beamtime.
The user provided targets will need to be mounted on target frames that are compatible with the MEC target holder. Please contact an instrument scientist for more information about target mounting. An example target mount design is illustrated in Figure 6.
To be considered for scheduling in this standard configuration, users will be required to include a table in the proposal that lists the specific experimental parameters to ensure compatibility with these configurations. If the experimental parameters are not compatible with the standard configuration or if the table of parameters is incomplete, the proposal will be reviewed and considered for scheduling as a general user proposal. Please see the table of required parameters of the MEC Standard Configuration #1. No fundamental changes to the standard configurations will occur, but some details of the configuration may be updated in response to inquiries, so users should recheck the website before submitting your proposal to confirm that you have the latest information. Address any questions to the instrument staff.
This configuration supports diffraction, phase contrast imaging (PCI) and direct X-ray Imaging measurements on targets shocked to pressures up to several Mbar, with shocks propagating perpendicular to the X-ray direction. The new MEC X-ray Imager (MXI), located upstream of the target, focuses the beam to a few 100s of nanometer size before the target, with the ability to shift between three lens sets for different magnification. The expanding X-rays pass through the target and are registered on an X-ray microscope ~4.5 m from TCC. The layout within the chamber is shown in Figure 1. X-ray diffraction is achieved with three out of four ePix10k quads of the XRD platform covering a range of 8 to 60 degrees. VISAR is also provided to measure shock velocity.
Optical Laser Parameters and Geometry
The full frequency-doubled energy of the long pulse laser is delivered to the target with angles of ± 20 deg. in the horizontal plane relative to the target normal, which has an angle of 90 deg. relative to the X-rays. Both beamlines can be used simultaneously (7 minutes between shots), or staggered (one shot every 3.5 minutes). The 72 mm beams are focused using 250 mm focal length aspheric lenses (F/3.5), and the focal plane of each beam relative to the target can be adjusted from best focus to a ~100 µm spot. MEC uses phase plates generating circular focal spots of 150, 300 and 600 micron by CPP. Phase plates can be manually exchanged during a standard configuration run, requiring a chamber vent. Note that desired pulse shapes and phase plates must be submitted at least 2 months before beamtime.
A stair-step target mount design allows for laser and VISAR access to a target for side-on X-ray imaging of the target. A pillar design is used to mount columns of targets in this way, as shown below:
MEC Instrument Staff
Gilliss Dyer, Bob Nagler, Hae Ja Lee, Eric Galtier, Philip Heimann, Dimitri Khaghani
Eric Cunningham, Hai-En Tsai, Marc Welch