LCLS features seven specialized instrument hutches, each with a dedicated team of scientists and support staff, to conduct pioneering research and assist users with experiments. Each hutch is equipped with a suite of instruments to assist in gathering a wide range of data using various specialized techniques, from telltale signatures of electrons and ions to the intricate patterns left by crystallized samples struck by the X-ray laser.
The TMO instrument is situated on one of the newly installed soft X-ray lines at LCLS. It delivers intense ultra-short X-rays pulses from the FEL using state-of-the-art variable gap soft X-ray undulators. These ultra-intense, ultra-short pulses enable the TMO instrument to support many fields of AMO science ranging from strong-field physics, nonlinear dynamics, charged particle spectroscopies, and attosecond to few femtosecond science cases.
The ChemRIXS instrument is a new endstation targeting studies of samples in solution using both tunable monochromatic soft x-rays and optical laser (OPA) pulses. It is designed with emphasis on highly time-resolved soft X-ray spectroscopy experiments on liquid samples. A range of rapid XAS and direct beam detection experiments are capable of being carried out.
The XPP instrument predominantly uses a fast optical laser to generate transient states of matter, and the hard X-ray pulse from the LCLS to probe the structural dynamics initiated by the laser excitation.
The MFX instrument primarily makes use of the ability for short pulses of X-rays to limit damage to samples during the exposure. This allows for example the study of metal-containing macromolecules which are particularly sensitive to radiation damage due to the high absorption of X-rays by the metal atoms.
The CXI instrument takes advantage of the extremely bright, ultrashort LCLS pulses of hard X-rays to allow imaging of non-periodic nanoscale objects, including single or small clusters of biomolecules at or near atomic resolution.
The MEC instrument observes matter at temperatures exceeding 10,000 Kelvin and at pressures 10 million times the earth's atmospheric pressure at sea-level, enabling unprecedented understanding of exotic states of matter.
LCLS-II will be a transformative tool for energy science, qualitatively changing the way that X-ray imaging, scattering and spectroscopy can be used to study how natural and artificial systems function. It will enable new ways to capture rare chemical events, characterize fluctuating heterogeneous complexes, and reveal quantum phenomena in matter, using nonlinear, multidimensional and coherent X-ray techniques that are possible only with X-ray lasers. This facility will operate in a soft X-ray range (250 eV to 1.5 keV), and will use seeding technologies to provide fully coherent X-rays in a uniformly spaced series of pulses with programmable repetition rate and rapidly tunable photon energies.