Standard Configurations

Current Run - Run 20

CXI Standard Configuration for Run 20

#1 Liquid Jets with the CXI 1 micron Focus

CXI will be configured to use the 1 micron KB focus inside the 1 micron sample chamber with energy range between 6keV and 11keV. The liquid jet mechanical system will be available and any sample delivery system compatible with this mechanical system using the standard nozzle rods will be supported. This includes Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), Lipidic Cubic Phase (LCP), the Microfluidic Electrokinetic Sample Holder (MESH), or other viscous extrusion systems, many types of mixing nozzles and any other system that can be mounted on the nozzle rod. The CXI sample chamber will be equipped with an on-axis jet viewing system as well as a perpendicular high resolution jet imaging system. A post-sample attenuator mount can be available if needed. Also supported will be time-resolved experiments employing either: a nanosecond optical parametric oscillator (410-2200 nm); the fundamental (800 nm) or second harmonic (400 nm) of the CXI ~50-150fs Ti:Sapphire laser; or a wavelength accessible by the CXI femtosecond optical parametric amplifier (480-2400 nm). The pump laser beam will be delivered collinear to the x-ray beam with in-coupling ~250 mm upstream of the sample with a focal length of ~300mm. The CXI time tool will be available for fs laser experiments. Users should expect that only one of the multiple laser options can be supported for a given experiment.

With this standard configuration, CXI will be able to support Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SFX) experiments with or without a pump laser and Small Angle and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS/WAXS) with or without a pump laser using a wide variety of sample delivery methods, either LCLS-owned or supplied by the user groups. A Jungfrau-4M detector will be available at sample to detector distances from ~60mm to ~500mm. A CSPAD detector is available downstream if absolutely necessary (upon approval from LCLS management).  The downstream CSPAD will typically be used for Protein Crystal Screening (PCS) by another group parasitically using the beam passing through the whole in the front detector. Users of the standard configuration at CXI should expect PCS beamtime running at the same time and their beamtime.

See the detailed description of the CXI Standard Configuration

To be considered for scheduling in this standard configuration, users will be required to include a table in the proposal that lists the specific experimental parameters to ensure compatibility with these configurations. If the experimental parameters are not compatible with the standard configuration or if the table of parameters is incomplete, the proposal will be reviewed and considered for scheduling as general user proposal. Please see the  table of required parameters. No fundamental changes to the standard configurations will occur, but some details of the configuration may be updated in response to inquiries, so users should recheck the website before submitting your proposal to confirm that you have the latest information. Address any questions to the instrument staff.

#2 Gas Phase Sample delivery

The gas phase chemistry standard configuration will support experiments to perform time-resolved gas phase chemistry experiments. CXI will be configured to use the 1 micron KB focus or compound refractive lenses. The system is compatible with a beam size of 2-3 microns up to 50um.The setup consists of a gas cell with a Pt entrance pinhole and a post sample scattering cone as well as a 200um Pt pinhole upstream of the gas cell. A gas manifold that can switch between and control gas pressure for 4 different gases can be remotely controlled for sample delivery

Time-resolved experiments employing tunable femtosecond pulses will be supported under this standard configuration. The fundamental (800 nm) or second harmonic (400 nm) of the CXI, ~50-150 fs Ti:Sapphire laser will be available, delivered to the sample collinearly with the X-rays, with in-coupling ~250 mm upstream of the sample and with the focusing lens ~350 mm away from the sample. The system can also be used with a TOPAS-Prime Optical Parametric Amplifier (OPA) capable of 480-2400 nm wavelengths. Note that the efficiency of the optics and the performance of the laser and the OPA will not be the same for the entire wavelength range. The achievable peak intensity/fluence will be determined by the existing optical system and will not be modified. Contact the CXI scientists to discuss specific needs and to confirm whether they can be achieved in this standard configuration.

A short pulse UV laser using the 3rd and 4th harmonics (267 nm and 200 nm, respectively) of the Ti:Sapphire laser is available. On target pulse durations (energies) of approximately 35 fs (25 μJ) and 50 fs (5μJ) are expected. Future developments include tunable DUV pulses in the 220-260 nm range via four-wave difference frequency mixing in hollow-core fibers. Please contact CXI scientists for latest laser capabilities. The CXI time tool will be available to record single shot arrival times that can be post-sorted. Time zero at the sample can be obtained to better than 200 fs using a CXI-supplied target to measure the index of refraction change induced by the x-ray beam.

 

MEC Standard Configuration for Run 20

Two different long pulse (LP) drive configurations are available in standard configurations, as part of three standard configuration options. In both drive options, the LP laser is delivered in two beams of 527 nm with variable pulse shapes between 5 and 35 ns.  Pulse energy depends on pulse shape and duration, with up to 30 J in each beam for a 10 ns square pulse. These beams are focused to target using continuous phase plates to deliver a disk-like focus of 150 µm, 300 µm, or 600 µm size. 

New ePix 10k quad detectors are deployed for XRD with thick Si for higher detection efficiency at photon energies above 12 keV. Their arrangement is significantly different from previous runs because of the change to vertical X-ray polarization, which affects scattering efficiency for angles well out of the horizontal plane.

In all shock drive standard configurations, dual line VISAR are deployed to measure shock break-out.

#1 X-ray diffraction (XRD)

In the collinear drive standard configuration, the target is oriented normal to the X-rays, and the two drive beams are symmetric about the X-rays in the horizontal plane. Four ePix10k quad detectors are arranged for X-ray diffraction to cover a range of 2θ spanning from 8° to 72º. The detectors can be re-positioned by small amounts for a given experiment to increase φ coverage for middle angles at the expense of θ range.

Two quads can be removed for an experiment to allow for forward X-ray Thomson scattering (FXRTS), at the expense of total 2θ. Backward XRTS is available in all cases. XRTS photon energy range has been extended to 18 keV.

#2 Phase contrast imaging (PCI)

A second LP drive configuration is available, in which the drive lasers are incident perpendicular to the X-ray direction. In this configuration, two quads are available for X-ray diffraction, covering a 2θ range of 15º to 60º. A phase contrast imaging diagnostic measures the shocked target, and the VISAR is oriented for shocks breakout perpendicular to the X-ray beam.

See the detailed description of the MEC Standard Configuration

To be considered for scheduling in either standard configuration, users will be required to add a table in the proposal that lists the specific experimental parameters to ensure compatibility with these configurations. If the experimental parameters are not compatible with the standard configuration or if the table of parameters is incomplete, the proposal will be reviewed and considered for scheduling as a general user proposal. Please see the table of required parameters. No fundamental changes to the standard configurations will occur, but some details of the configuration may be updated in response to inquiries, so Users should recheck the website before submitting your proposal to confirm that you have the latest information. Address any questions to the MEC instrument staff.

 

MFX Standard Configuration for Run 20

#1 Goniometer system with sample mounting robot

The Macromolecular Femtosecond Crystallography (MFX) instrument will be configured to perform crystallography experiments using fixed-target samples. A goniometer system developed by the Structural Molecular Biology (SMB) team at SSRL will be deployed in the MFX hutch for this purpose. The system consists of a goniometer with scanning and rotation capabilities to precisely orient and scan crystals, and an on-axis, (visible and NIR light compatible), sample microscope. The crystals can be mounted on grids, chips, loops, meshes or any standard mounting system already supported by the SMB group. The incident photon energy is preferred to be 9.5 keV but justified deviations can be considered. The X-ray focus can vary over a range of ~3-4 µm to ~100 µm. Measurements at cryo-cooled temperatures or room temperature will be possible. The setup includes the option of an on-axis cryo-cooler to maintain crystals at temperatures of 278 to 100K during the measurements or an Arinax humidity control instrument may be requested for controlled humidity (30.0 % to 99.8 % RH) during measurements at ambient temperatures. A sample exchange robot, the Stanford Automated Mounting (SAM) system, may be used to exchange samples on compatible magnetic bases held in SSRL cassettes or uni-pucks from inside a liquid nitrogen filled storage Dewar. Samples at ambient temperatures may be mounted from 10 sample base storage locations on the side of the SAM robot. The detector is a Rayonix 340-XFEL capable of 30 Hz operation with 1920x1920 pixels frame size. The control of data collection will be performed using Blu-Ice/DCSS. No pump laser will be provided.

More detailed information on what is supported by the standard SMB suite of capabilities for sample mounting, data collection modes, etc. can be found at smb.slac.stanford.edu.

Use of this Standard Configuration is contingent on acceptance by the users to use the following acknowledgment in any presentation or publication: "The SSRL Structural Molecular Biology Program is supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of General Medical Sciences (including P41GM103393). The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of NIGMS or NIH."

See the detailed description of the MFX Standard Configuration #1

To be considered for scheduling in this standard configuration, users will be required to include a table in the proposal that lists the specific experimental parameters to ensure compatibility with these configurations. If the experimental parameters are not compatible with the standard configuration or if the table of parameters is incomplete, the proposal will be reviewed and considered for scheduling as general user proposal. Please see the table of required parameters of the MFX Standards Configuration #1. No fundamental changes to the standard configurations will occur, but some details of the configuration may be updated in response to inquiries, so users should recheck the website before submitting your proposal to confirm that you have the latest information. Address any questions to the LCLS instrument staff or the SMB support staff.

#2 Helium-Rich Ambient (HERA) instrument for time-resolved liquid jet crystallography

The Macromolecular Femtosecond Crystallography (MFX) instrument will be configured to perform crystallography experiments with liquid jets inside a helium filled enclosure. A liquid jet mechanical system will be available to move the jet and any sample delivery system compatible with this mechanical system using the standard nozzle mount will be supported. This includes Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), Lipidic Cubic Phase (LCP), the Microfluidic Electrokinetic Sample Holder (MESH), or other viscous extrusion systems, many types of mixing nozzles and any other system that can be mounted on the nozzle mount. The system will be equipped with an on-axis jet viewing system as well as a perpendicular high resolution jet imaging system. Also supported will be time-resolved experiments employing either a nanosecond optical parametric oscillator (410-2200 nm). The pump laser beam will be delivered at ~60 degree from collinear to the x-ray beam with minimum lens distance of ~150mm. The incident photon energy is preferred to be 9.5 keV but justified deviations can be considered. The X-ray focus can vary over a range of ~3-4 µm to ~100 µm.

With this standard configuration, MFX will be able to support jet-based Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SFX) experiments at atmospheric pressure and temperature with noise minimization from the Helium environment. This will be possible with or without a pump laser. Also supported will be Small Angle and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS/WAXS) with or without a pump laser using the wide variety of sample delivery jets, either LCLS-owned or supplied by the user groups. The detector will be an ePix10-2.1M capable of 120 Hz operation or a Rayonix 340-XFEL capable of 30 Hz operation with 1920x1920 pixels frame size.

Use of this Standard Configuration is contingent on acceptance by the users to use the following acknowledgment in any presentation or publication: "The HERA system for in helium experiments at MFX was developed by Bruce Doak and funded by the Max-Planck Institute for Medical Research."

See the detailed description of the MFX Standard Configuration #2

To be considered for scheduling in this standard configuration, users will be required to include a table in the proposal that lists the specific experimental parameters to ensure compatibility with these configurations. If the experimental parameters are not compatible with the standard configuration or if the table of parameters is incomplete, the proposal will be reviewed and considered for scheduling as general user proposal. Please see the  table of required parameters of the MFX Standards Configuration #2.  No fundamental changes to the standard configurations will occur, but some details of the configuration may be updated in response to inquiries, so users should recheck the website before submitting your proposal to confirm that you have the latest information. Address any questions to the instrument staff.

 

XCS Standard Configuration for Run 20

 

#1 Time-resolved solution scattering/emission spectroscopy

The X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy instrument will be configured to study time-resolved solution scattering and/or emission spectroscopy. Monochromatic beam can be delivered using the large offset double crystal monochromator with diamond (111) or a Si (111) Channel cut monochromator and pink beam is available through the XCS periscope. The setup will consist of a helium purged sample environment, a horizontal round or flat liquid jet and the sample recirculation system driven by HPLC pumps, an ePix10k-2.1M detector for wide angle x-ray scattering measurements and a von Hamos spectrometer with an ePix100 detector for x-ray emission spectroscopy measurements. The spectrometer will be available for any of the following emission lines: Mn Kß1,3, Kß2,5 and Kα, Fe Kß1,3 and Kß2,5, Co Kß1,3 and Kß2,5, Ni Kß1,3 and Kß2,5, Ti Kß1,3 and Kß2,5 and V Kα. A femtosecond optical pump laser in collinear geometry with a wavelength in the range of 480-2400 nm will be available.

See the detailed description of the XCS Standard Configuration.

To be considered for scheduling in this standard configuration, users will be required to include a table in the proposal that lists the specific experimental parameters to ensure compatibility with these configurations. If the experimental parameters are not compatible with the standard configuration or if the table of parameters is incomplete, the proposal will be reviewed and considered for scheduling as general user proposal. Please see the table of required parameters for Standard Configuration. No fundamental changes to the standard configurations will occur, but some details of the configuration may be updated in response to inquiries, so users should recheck the website before submitting your proposal to confirm that you have the latest information. Address any questions to the instrument staff.

#2 Time-resolved hard X-ray coherent scattering and small angle scattering measurements

The X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy instrument will be configured to study time-resolved coherent scattering or small angle scattering on condensed matter systems. For experiments that don’t require specific photon energy and for scheduling purposes the default photon energy of 9.831keV will be used for this standard configuration and will be monochromatic using the large offset double crystal monochromator with diamond (111). The sample will be mounted in air on a Huber diffractometer. The scattering geometry is limited to the horizontal plane. An ePix10-2.1M or epix100 detectors will be mounted 4 or 8m downstream of the sample on the large angle detector mover capable of covering a 2θ angle from 0 to 55 degrees. Motorized XY motions are available to position the detector and invacuum beam stops are available for small angle scattering measurements. In addition to the 800/400 nm 50 fs Ti:Sapphire fundamental/2nd harmonic wavelengths, an OPA will be available to cover the wavelength range of 480-2400 nm. The optical pump beam will be propagating collinearly with the X-ray beam with about 2 degree crossing angle.

See the detailed description of the XCS Standard Configuration.

To be considered for scheduling in this standard configuration, users will be required to include a table in the proposal that lists the specific experimental parameters to ensure compatibility with these configurations. If the experimental parameters are not compatible with the standard configuration or if the table of parameters is incomplete, the proposal will be reviewed and considered for scheduling as general user proposal. Please see the table of required parameters. No fundamental changes to the standard configurations will occur, but some details of the configuration may be updated in response to inquiries, so users should recheck the website before submitting your proposal to confirm that you have the latest information. Address any questions to the instrument staff.

 

XPP Standard Configuration for Run 20

#1 Kappa goniometer for time-resolved diffraction

The X-ray Pump Probe instrument will be configured for time-resolved X-ray diffraction. The setup will consist of a Kappa goniometer for sample manipulation with all 6 degrees of freedom, and an ePix10k or CSPAD detector mounted on the detector robot arm for measurement of the diffracted x-rays over most of the upper reciprocal hemisphere. The incident photon energy will be fixed to 9.5 keV (deviations will be considered but not promised) using monochromatic beam delivered by the large offset double crystal monochromator using diamond 111. The Oxford nitrogen cryostream can be used to control the sample temperature down to 100 K. A femtosecond optical pump laser in collinear geometry with a wavelength in the range of 480-2400 nm will be available.

See the detailed description of the XPP Standard Configuration.

To be considered for scheduling in this standard configuration, users will be required to include a table in the proposal that lists the specific experimental parameters to ensure compatibility with these configurations. If the experimental parameters are not compatible with the standard configuration or if the table of parameters is incomplete, the proposal will be reviewed and considered for scheduling as general user proposal. Please see the table of required parameters for Standard Configuration. No fundamental changes to the standard configurations will occur, but some details of the configuration may be updated in response to inquiries, so users should recheck the website before submitting your proposal to confirm that you have the latest information. Address any questions to the instrument staff.

#2 X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) of 3d transition metals

The X-ray Pump Probe instrument will be configured for time-resolved pump-probe hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements (XANES on the K-edge of 3d transition metals) in solution phase. A helium purged sample chamber will be used to house a horizontal  liquid jet, with Kapton windows to allow the absorption signal to be measured by detectors outside the chamber. Liquid jet driven by HPLC pumps will be used to deliver the sample into the interaction point. An epix100 detector will be mounted above the sample chamber and possibly a photodiode below the sample. The X-ray energy will be scanned with the XPP channel cut monochromator (CCM) using Si(111) crystals (~4.5 to 10 keV). We expect an average photon flux of 1010/pulse after the monochromator. Refractive Be lens will be available to deliver a beam size ranging from 10 to 200 um at the sample. 1D focusing is available as well. A femtosecond optical pump laser in collinear geometry with a wavelength in the range of 480-2400 nm will be available.

See the detailed description of the XPP Standard Configuration.

To be considered for scheduling in this standard configuration, users will be required to include a table in the proposal that lists the specific experimental parameters to ensure compatibility with these configurations. If the experimental parameters are not compatible with the standard configuration or if the table of parameters is incomplete, the proposal will be reviewed and considered for scheduling as general user proposal. Please see the table of required parameters. No fundamental changes to the standard configurations will occur, but some details of the configuration may be updated in response to inquiries, so users should recheck the website before submitting your proposal to confirm that you have the latest information. Address any questions to the instrument staff.

 

TMO Capabilities for Run 20

chemRIXS/qRIXS Capabilities for Run 20